History of food microbiology

As a discipline, Food Microbiology does not have a precise beginning.  Events which stretched over several centuries ultimately led to the recognition of the significance and role of microorganisms in foods.  Food borne disease and food spoilage have been part of the human experience since the dawn of our race.  Although the actual cause of these problems would remain a mystery for thousands of years, many early civilizations discovered and applied effective methods to preserve and protect their food:

 

7000 BC – Evidence that the Babylonians manufactured beer (fermentation).  Wine appeared in about 3500 BC.  In early civilizations (and even today in underdeveloped countries where modern sanitation is lacking), alcoholic beverages like beer and wine were much safer to consume than the local water supply, because the water was often contaminated with intestinal microorganisms that caused cholera, dysentery and other serious diseases.

 

6000 BC – The first apparent reference to food spoilage in recorded history.

 

3000 BC – Egyptians manufactured cheese (fermentation) and butter (fermentation, low aw).  Again, fermented foods such as cheese and sour milk (yogurt) were safer to eat and resisted spoilage better than their raw agricultural counterparts.  Several cultures also learned to use salt (low aw) to preserve meat and other foods around this time.

 

1000 BC – Romans used snow to preserve shrimp (low temp), records of smoked and fermented meats also appear.

 

Even though early human cultures discovered effective ways to preserve food (fermentation, salt, ice, drying and smoking), they did not understood how these practices inhibited food spoilage or food borne disease.  Their ignorance was compounded by a belief that living things formed spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory of Spontaneous Generation).

 

1665 – An Italian physician by the name of Francesco Redi demonstrated that maggots on putrefying meat did not arise spontaneously but were instead the larval stages of flies (put meat in container capped with fine gauze so that flies couldn’t get access to deposit eggs).  This was the first step away from the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

 

1683 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek from the Netherlands examined and described bacteria through a microscope.  At about the same time, the Royal Society was established in England to communicate and publish scientific work, and they invited Leeuwenhoek to communicate his observations.  He did so for nearly 50 years until his death in 1723.  As a result, Leeuwenhoek’s reports were widely disseminated and he is justifiably regarded as the person who discovered the microbial world.

 

1765 – Italian named Spallanzani tried to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation of life by demonstrating that beef broth which was boiled and then sealed remained sterile.  Supporters of the theory discounted his work because they believed his treatment excluded O2, which they thought was vital to spontaneous generation.

 

1795 – The French government offered 12,000 francs to anyone who could develop a practical way to preserve food.  A French confectioner named Nicholas Appert was issued the patent after showing that meat could be preserved when it was placed in glass bottles and boiled.  This was the beginning of food preservation by canning.

 

1837 – Schwann demonstrates that healed infusions remain sterile in the presence of air (which he passed in through heated coils), again to disprove spontaneous generation.  It is interesting to note that although Spallanzani and Schwann each used heat to preserve food, neither man apparently realized the value of turning these observations into a commercial method for food preservation.  (Critics suggest heating somehow changed the effect of air as it was needed for spontaneous generation.)

 

The first person to really appreciate and understand the causal relationship between microorganisms in infusions and the chemical changes that took place in those infusions was Louis Pasteur.  Through his experiments, Pasteur convinced the scientific world that all fermentative processes were caused by microorganisms and that specific types of fermentations (e.g. alcoholic, lactic or butyric) were the result of specific types of microorganisms.

 

In 1857 he showed that souring milk was caused by microbes and in 1860 he demonstrated that heat destroyed undesirable microbes in wine and beer.  The latter process is now used for a variety of foods and is called pasteurization.  Because of the importance of his work, Pasteur is known as the founder of food microbiology and microbiological science.  He demonstrated that air doesn’t have to be heated to remain sterile using his famous swan-necked flasks that finally disproved spontaneous generation.

 

Some of Pasteur’s most notable achievements include:

       Demonstrated that fermentation was a product of microbial activity and that different types of fermentation (i.e. lactic, butyric, etc.) were caused by different types of microorganisms.  The knowledge that microbes were responsible for fermentation and putrefaction led Pasteur to argue that microbes were also causative agents in disease.  These arguments eventually reached an English surgeon named Joseph Lister who used them to develop the first aseptic surgical procedures.

 

       he developed the pasteurization process used to preserve wine

 

       He developed a vaccine to protect sheep from anthrax by isolating an attenuated (avirulent) strain of the causative bacterium, Bacillus anthracis.  Pasteur isolated the attenuated organisms by growing them at elevated temperature (42oC).  Sheep exposed to the attenuated bacterium became immune to virulent strains.   Although Pasteur did not understand the basis for attenuation, we now know that virulence in this bacterium depends on the presence of a plasmid that cannot replicate at 42oC.

 

       Pasteur also developed a method to make chickens immune to cholera caused by Pasteurella septica, again using an attenuated bacterium that he had isolated in his laboratory.

 

–     He developed the method for treating rabies still in use today.

 

From the time of Pasteur, microbiological discoveries and developments began to proceed more rapidly.  Microbes were implicated in several diseases, heat-resistant spores were discovered, toxins were identified, and by the late 1800s, governments began to enact legislation to protect the quality of food.

 

In the U.S. many food industries hesitated to adopt industry wide microbiological standards until they were economically threatened by the publicity which surrounded outbreaks of food borne disease.  Several nasty outbreaks of botulism in the early 1920s finally prompted the U.S. canning industry to adopt a very conservative heat treatment, known as the 12D process, that reduces the probability of survival of the most heat resistant C. botulinum spores to one in a billion (10-12).  This practice continues today, and since 1925, the canning industry has produced more than a trillion containers with only 5-6 known incidents of botulism.  Most of these incidents involved faulty containers, not under processing.

 

At about the same time, the dairy industry was driven to implement microbiological control over milk because of several notorious outbreaks of milk-borne typhoid fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis and brucellosis.  Public health authorities established requirements that addressed animal health, sanitation, pasteurization (which had an immediate and very effective impact on the problems), and refrigeration, with all of these steps reinforced by bacterial standards.  As a result, pasteurized milk was one of our safest foods by the mid-1900s.

 

In one of the more unusual episodes of early food microbiology, the New York state government institutionalized a woman who came to be known as “Typhoid Mary.”  Mary was an asymptomatic typhoid carrier that worked as a cook for several families near the turn of the century.  Over ten years, 7 outbreaks of typhoid were directly traced to her and estimates suggest she may have been responsible for 51 cases of typhoid fever.  New York authorities arrested her and sought to have her gall bladder removed but eventually released her when she agreed never to work as a cook again.  When another outbreak was traced to her a few years later, she was arrested as a threat to public safety and institutionalized until her death in 1938.

 

Take home message:

 

       We have come to expect government protection in food safety, yet still outbreaks occur despite our efforts to develop the cleanest food supply in the world.  Why?

 

Jay “….it is not inconceivable that E. coliO157:H7 and L. monocytogenes have emerged as food-borne pathogens because our foods are so clean.”  [Statement to USDA FSIS public hearing on proposed changes to meat and poultry inspection].

 

As we eliminate microbes from food we create an environment free of competition which may allow opportunities for other microorganisms to grow and cause disease.  For this reason, there is considerable interest in identifying safe bacteria (e.g. lactic acid bacteria) which, when deliberately added to food, would inhibit growth of pathogens but would not rapidly spoil the product themselves (though some lost shelf life seems inevitable).

Jai Hind vande matram 👦

Advertisements

History of food microbiology

As a discipline, Food Microbiology does not have a precise beginning.  Events which stretched over several centuries ultimately led to the recognition of the significance and role of microorganisms in foods.  Food borne disease and food spoilage have been part of the human experience since the dawn of our race.  Although the actual cause of these problems would remain a mystery for thousands of years, many early civilizations discovered and applied effective methods to preserve and protect their food:

 

7000 BC – Evidence that the Babylonians manufactured beer (fermentation).  Wine appeared in about 3500 BC.  In early civilizations (and even today in underdeveloped countries where modern sanitation is lacking), alcoholic beverages like beer and wine were much safer to consume than the local water supply, because the water was often contaminated with intestinal microorganisms that caused cholera, dysentery and other serious diseases.

 

6000 BC – The first apparent reference to food spoilage in recorded history.

 

3000 BC – Egyptians manufactured cheese (fermentation) and butter (fermentation, low aw).  Again, fermented foods such as cheese and sour milk (yogurt) were safer to eat and resisted spoilage better than their raw agricultural counterparts.  Several cultures also learned to use salt (low aw) to preserve meat and other foods around this time.

 

1000 BC – Romans used snow to preserve shrimp (low temp), records of smoked and fermented meats also appear.

 

Even though early human cultures discovered effective ways to preserve food (fermentation, salt, ice, drying and smoking), they did not understood how these practices inhibited food spoilage or food borne disease.  Their ignorance was compounded by a belief that living things formed spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory of Spontaneous Generation).

 

1665 – An Italian physician by the name of Francesco Redi demonstrated that maggots on putrefying meat did not arise spontaneously but were instead the larval stages of flies (put meat in container capped with fine gauze so that flies couldn’t get access to deposit eggs).  This was the first step away from the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

 

1683 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek from the Netherlands examined and described bacteria through a microscope.  At about the same time, the Royal Society was established in England to communicate and publish scientific work, and they invited Leeuwenhoek to communicate his observations.  He did so for nearly 50 years until his death in 1723.  As a result, Leeuwenhoek’s reports were widely disseminated and he is justifiably regarded as the person who discovered the microbial world.

 

1765 – Italian named Spallanzani tried to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation of life by demonstrating that beef broth which was boiled and then sealed remained sterile.  Supporters of the theory discounted his work because they believed his treatment excluded O2, which they thought was vital to spontaneous generation.

 

1795 – The French government offered 12,000 francs to anyone who could develop a practical way to preserve food.  A French confectioner named Nicholas Appert was issued the patent after showing that meat could be preserved when it was placed in glass bottles and boiled.  This was the beginning of food preservation by canning.

 

1837 – Schwann demonstrates that healed infusions remain sterile in the presence of air (which he passed in through heated coils), again to disprove spontaneous generation.  It is interesting to note that although Spallanzani and Schwann each used heat to preserve food, neither man apparently realized the value of turning these observations into a commercial method for food preservation.  (Critics suggest heating somehow changed the effect of air as it was needed for spontaneous generation.)

 

The first person to really appreciate and understand the causal relationship between microorganisms in infusions and the chemical changes that took place in those infusions was Louis Pasteur.  Through his experiments, Pasteur convinced the scientific world that all fermentative processes were caused by microorganisms and that specific types of fermentations (e.g. alcoholic, lactic or butyric) were the result of specific types of microorganisms.

 

In 1857 he showed that souring milk was caused by microbes and in 1860 he demonstrated that heat destroyed undesirable microbes in wine and beer.  The latter process is now used for a variety of foods and is called pasteurization.  Because of the importance of his work, Pasteur is known as the founder of food microbiology and microbiological science.  He demonstrated that air doesn’t have to be heated to remain sterile using his famous swan-necked flasks that finally disproved spontaneous generation.

 

Some of Pasteur’s most notable achievements include:

       Demonstrated that fermentation was a product of microbial activity and that different types of fermentation (i.e. lactic, butyric, etc.) were caused by different types of microorganisms.  The knowledge that microbes were responsible for fermentation and putrefaction led Pasteur to argue that microbes were also causative agents in disease.  These arguments eventually reached an English surgeon named Joseph Lister who used them to develop the first aseptic surgical procedures.

 

       he developed the pasteurization process used to preserve wine

 

       He developed a vaccine to protect sheep from anthrax by isolating an attenuated (avirulent) strain of the causative bacterium, Bacillus anthracis.  Pasteur isolated the attenuated organisms by growing them at elevated temperature (42oC).  Sheep exposed to the attenuated bacterium became immune to virulent strains.   Although Pasteur did not understand the basis for attenuation, we now know that virulence in this bacterium depends on the presence of a plasmid that cannot replicate at 42oC.

 

       Pasteur also developed a method to make chickens immune to cholera caused by Pasteurella septica, again using an attenuated bacterium that he had isolated in his laboratory.

 

–     He developed the method for treating rabies still in use today.

 

From the time of Pasteur, microbiological discoveries and developments began to proceed more rapidly.  Microbes were implicated in several diseases, heat-resistant spores were discovered, toxins were identified, and by the late 1800s, governments began to enact legislation to protect the quality of food.

 

In the U.S. many food industries hesitated to adopt industry wide microbiological standards until they were economically threatened by the publicity which surrounded outbreaks of food borne disease.  Several nasty outbreaks of botulism in the early 1920s finally prompted the U.S. canning industry to adopt a very conservative heat treatment, known as the 12D process, that reduces the probability of survival of the most heat resistant C. botulinum spores to one in a billion (10-12).  This practice continues today, and since 1925, the canning industry has produced more than a trillion containers with only 5-6 known incidents of botulism.  Most of these incidents involved faulty containers, not under processing.

 

At about the same time, the dairy industry was driven to implement microbiological control over milk because of several notorious outbreaks of milk-borne typhoid fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis and brucellosis.  Public health authorities established requirements that addressed animal health, sanitation, pasteurization (which had an immediate and very effective impact on the problems), and refrigeration, with all of these steps reinforced by bacterial standards.  As a result, pasteurized milk was one of our safest foods by the mid-1900s.

 

In one of the more unusual episodes of early food microbiology, the New York state government institutionalized a woman who came to be known as “Typhoid Mary.”  Mary was an asymptomatic typhoid carrier that worked as a cook for several families near the turn of the century.  Over ten years, 7 outbreaks of typhoid were directly traced to her and estimates suggest she may have been responsible for 51 cases of typhoid fever.  New York authorities arrested her and sought to have her gall bladder removed but eventually released her when she agreed never to work as a cook again.  When another outbreak was traced to her a few years later, she was arrested as a threat to public safety and institutionalized until her death in 1938.

 

Take home message:

 

       We have come to expect government protection in food safety, yet still outbreaks occur despite our efforts to develop the cleanest food supply in the world.  Why?

 

Jay “….it is not inconceivable that E. coliO157:H7 and L. monocytogenes have emerged as food-borne pathogens because our foods are so clean.”  [Statement to USDA FSIS public hearing on proposed changes to meat and poultry inspection].

 

As we eliminate microbes from food we create an environment free of competition which may allow opportunities for other microorganisms to grow and cause disease.  For this reason, there is considerable interest in identifying safe bacteria (e.g. lactic acid bacteria) which, when deliberately added to food, would inhibit growth of pathogens but would not rapidly spoil the product themselves (though some lost shelf life seems inevitable).

Jai Hind vande matram 👦

Slaughtering process of goat and sheeps

1. Introduction

Sheep and goat skins are one of the most important foreign exchange earners to the Ethiopian

economy. There is, however, substantial loss due to rejection and downgrading of sheep/goat

skins. This has resulted in substantial losses to producers, traders, tanneries and also to the

country’s economy. Most people in Ethiopia slaughter sheep and goats in their backyards due to

traditional norms and lack of legislation. Inadequate attention is paid to maintaining quality as a

result of the by-product status accorded to skins. Farmers and butchers in rural areas get a very

low price for the skins that are no incentive for proper handling and drying. Tanning of damaged

skins require more chemicals and effort to repair them. This means extra cost and extra pollution.

Estimates of the loss to the Ethiopian economy due to poor handling and other problems reach

US $ 14 million per year.

Care during slaughter and flaying of sheep/goats has a profound impact on the quality of skin

produced and in the reduction of associated losses. Even though slaughter practices in Ethiopia

differ according to local culture, customs and religious practices, the following general

procedures of slaughter and flaying will help to substantially reduce the rate of defective skins

produced.

2. Slaughter/flaying steps and proper care

2.1. Stunning

Stunning is the practice of rendering animals unconscious just before slaughter. Proper stunning

procedures reduce the chance of stained carcasses and blood splash. Currently, stunning is,

generally, not practiced for sheep and goats in most abattoirs in Ethiopia. The following stunning

options are available for use in abattoirs:

• Mechanical instrument like a sharp knife that traumatizes the brain so that the animal loses

consciousness instantaneously can be used. The correct location of using the instrument for

sheep and goats .

Electrical stunning: This method of stunning is well suited

for sheep or goats. Electrical stunning induces electric

shock or epileptic state in the brain. This state should last

for long enough for bleeding to be carried out. Since the

brain of sheep and goats is small, the electrodes should be

accurately and firmly placed high up on the sides of the Head.

2.2. Bleeding

Bleeding is best performed with the carcass hoisted by the hind legs

while leaving the forelegs to kick in the usual reflex action (Figure

3). It is advisable to stun the animals prior to hoisting. For sheep and

goats, some flayers prefer to complete most of the bleeding on the

floor adjacent to a drain. When

sheep and goats possess long hair,

much more care must be taken to

avoid contamination with blood

and dung, and bleeding on a

definite slope is to be preferred.

In either case, final bleeding is

best carried out after suspension

of the carcass.

In the simplest case, the bleeding is done on the ground (Figure 4) on a cover of banana leaves,

on a table or something similar. Then a rack with standard hooks or gambrels (hanger-like

hooks) is used to keep the carcass in a vertical position off the ground for skinning and

eviscerating. The branch of a tree may be sufficient for slaughtering on a farm premise.

The slaughter needs to be performed within 30 seconds. The knife must be properly sharpened to

minimize pain during the cut. Excessive bending of the neck is unnecessary.

2.3. Ripping

• Ripping is the process of tearing the skin to start the skinning process. Figure 5 shows the

proper ripping lines during slaughter of sheep and goats. The following are the steps in the

ripping of sheep and goats to start the skinning process:

• One long and straight incision from the jaw to the anus along the center line of the belly.

• Four circular cuts around the shanks at the level of the knee and hock joint.

• Two cuts on the inside of the forelegs, knees to the breast bone.

• Two cuts on the back of each hock joint to a point mid-way between the anus and scrotum.

2.4. Flaying/Skinning

Flaying/skinning should be done within a few hours of the animal’s death as the skin will peel off

especially easily. Make sure the knives used are sharp. Proceed as follows:

Flaying/ skinning of sheep and goats can be started by making a small incision on the inside of

one of the hind legs. The hind legs, including a small portion of the skin covering the abdomen

and edges of the butt round the rump, can be flayed with a knife and fist while on the floor. The

carcass should then be hoisted. Hoisting the animal makes it easy to use one’s body weight to

pull the skin off

. It also assures that the meat will stay clean. The slaughtered animal

can either be hanging from the neck or from the legs. Strong ropes should be used for the

purpose.

To hang a sheep/goat by its back legs, find the large tendon that connects the lowest leg segment

with the rest of the leg. Poke a hole in between that tendon and the leg bone. Use your fingers to

feel the lump that is created by the double jointed bone. Then sever the lower leg at the lower of

the two joints .Cut skin and tendons around the joint, and then snap it over

your leg.

Skinning is a straight forward activity if one follows the body’s built in guidelines. This is

because the skin and muscle tissue are naturally separated from one another by protective

membranes. The skin easily separates from the meat along these membranes when you pull it.

After getting a clean start, there is little risk of tearing the skin or the meat. Sometimes, the belly

skin is removed using a knife leaving the surface of the carcass with close serrated scores.

When you use a knife to slice the skin from the animal you inevitably violate these layers and

make the whole job harder. Once you cut into the meat, you are no longer working with the

natural division between meat and skin. You usually end up removing large chunks of meat, as

well as putting cuts and holes in the skin. These cuts (also called scores) and holes open up and

enlarge easily, increasing the amount of work at every stage of the tanning process later on.

There are absolutely no advantages to knifing a skin off. It is not faster! Thus, it often requires

the butcher to punch his fist forcefully between the skin and the carcass surface to detach the

skin referred to as fisting.Fisting is hygienically critical. The butcher must take care

to frequently wash his hands and arms and not touch the dirty outside of the animal’s skin while

removing the skin this way.

An alternative to fisting is the use of compressed air. If facilities are available, a compressed air

pipe is introduced between the skin and carcass surface and the air pressure gradually detaches

the skin. The air must pass through a filter in order to reduce the micro-organisms present in the

air, which otherwise can constitute a source of contamination. Blowing air into the cut in the

hind leg is a traditional practice in many areas when the skin, usually goat skin, is required as a

water bag.

A knife should not be used in the final phase. The flayer uses his weight with downward pressure

to remove the skin especially from the tail area, the neck and forelegs.

After the skin is separated, remove any meat and/or fat from the skin. Wash flesh side if

contaminated with blood and/or gut contents. Then immediately cure with common salt or by air

drying to prevent putrefaction.

3. Glossary

Abattoir: A slaughterhouse having proper facilities for all aspects of slaughter with the necessary

equipment for proper handling of meat, skins and other animal by-products in an appropriate manner.

Correct pattern: A standard pattern for a flayed skin when laid out flat, which is adopted by the trade,

and which enables the tanner to cut maximum area of good leather from a hide/skin.

Curing: The treatment of skins with common salt or by air drying to prevent putrefaction.

Defatting: The removal of unwanted fatty (adipose) tissue from the flesh side of a fresh skin during

fleshing.

Flay cuts: Damage caused by careless use of a knife during flaying, sometimes cutting through the skin.

Flaying (skinning): The removal of a skin from a carcass.

Flaying knife: The knife used to sever the subcutaneous tissues when removing the skin from the

carcass.

Flesh side: The inner side of a skin next to the body of an animal in life.

Fleshing: The removal of the residual connective and adipose tissues from the flesh side of a skin after

flaying.

Gouges: Knife damage to the skin during flaying, taking out scooped portions of the corium.

Grain layer: The top portion of the dermis.

Pattern: The pattern of skin when laid out flat.

Putrefaction: Bacterial and enzymatic breakdown, rotting.

Ripping: Opening of a skin on a carcass, following an accepted pattern of cutting, before flaying.

Ripping knife: Knife designed to make the opening cuts on a skin before flaying. It can also be used for

slaughtering, bleeding and other operations. N.B: Is similar to a flaying knife but has a straighter

cutting edge.

Scores: Knife damage to skins during flaying by cuts that do not fully penetrate through the skin.

Trimming: Removal of unwanted portion of a skin.

Jai Hind vande matram 👦

Apple’s iPhone x and iPhone 8 features and specifications

iPhone x

Super Retina Display

With iPhone X, the device is the display. An all‑new 5.8‑inch Super Retina screen fills the hand and dazzles the eyes.

Innovative Technology

The display employs new techniques and technology to precisely follow the curves of the design, all the way to the elegantly rounded corners.

OLED Designed for iPhone X

The first OLED screen that rises to the standards of iPhone, with accurate, stunning colours, true blacks, high brightness and a 1,000,000 to 1 contrast ratio.

TrueDepth Camera

A tiny space houses some of the most sophisticated technology we’ve ever developed, including the cameras and sensors that enable Face ID.

All-New Design

The most durable glass ever in a smartphone, front and back. Surgical‑grade stainless steel. Wireless charging. Water and dust resistance.

Intuitive Gestures

Familiar gestures make navigation natural and intuitive. Instead of pressing a button, a single swipe takes you home from anywhere.

*Face detection

Secure Authentication

Your face is now your password. Face ID is a secure new way to unlock and authenticate.

Facial Mapping

Face ID is enabled by the TrueDepth camera and is simple to set up. It projects and analyzes more than 30,000 invisible dots to create a precise depth map of your face.

Portrait Mode Selfies

Create beautiful selfies with sharp foregrounds and artfully blurred backgrounds.

Portrait Lighting

A new feature in Portrait mode, Portrait Lighting produces impressive studio‑quality lighting effects.

Animoji

The TrueDepth camera analyses more than 50 different muscle movements to mirror your expressions in 12 Animoji. Reveal your inner panda, pig or robot.

12megapixel camera

Improved Cameras

Larger and faster 12-megapixel sensor. A new colour filter. Deeper pixels. And a new telephoto camera with OIS

Portrait Lighting

Beta

Depth-sensing cameras and precise facial mapping create striking studio‑quality lighting effects.

Dual OIS

Both rear cameras have optical image stabilisation and fast lenses for outstanding photos and videos even in low light.

Optical Zoom

The wide-angle and telephoto cameras on iPhone X enable optical zoom, as well as digital zoom of up to 10x for photos and 6x for videos.

Processor

Neural Engine

Introducing A11 Bionic. The most powerful and smartest chip ever in a smartphone, with a neural engine that’s capable of up to 600 billion operations per second.

Faster CPU

The four efficiency cores in the all‑new CPU are up to 70 per cent faster than A10 Fusion. And the two performance cores are up to 25 per cent faster.

Adaptive Recognition

Machine learning lets Face ID adapt to physical changes in your appearance over time.

Power Efficiency

A second-generation performance controller and custom battery design that lasts up to two hours longer between charges than iPhone 7.

Apple‑Designed GPU

The new Apple‑designed three‑core GPU is up to 30 per cent faster than A10 Fusion.

Augmented Reality

A11 Bionic powers extraordinary augmented reality experiences in games and apps.

Charging

Wireless Charging

With no charging cable required, iPhone X is truly designed for the future of wireless.

A Wireless World

Charge with wireless charging stations and mats in hotels, cafés and airports around the world.

AirPower

Available 2018

Introducing AirPower mat. Just set your iPhone, Apple Watch and AirPods anywhere on the mat to charge them wirelessly.

Ios11

Designed for iPhone X

A phone that’s all screen required an entirely rethought OS with new capabilities and gestures.

New with iOS 11

Send Animoji in Messages. Make Siri your personal DJ. And discover new music with friends in Apple Music.

Augmented Reality

Experience mind-blowing AR games and apps on the world’s largest platform for augmented reality.

Iphone8

iPhone 8A beautiful mind.

iPhone 8 introduces an all‑new glass design. The world’s most popular camera, now even better. The smartest, most powerful chip ever in a smartphone. Wireless charging that’s truly effortless. And augmented reality experiences never before possible. iPhone 8. A new generation of iPhone.

All‑Glass Design

The most durable glass ever in a smartphone, front and back. A colour‑matched, aerospace‑grade aluminium band. New space grey, silver and gold finishes.

Water and Dust Resistant

Precision‑engineered to resist water and dust.

Wireless Charging

The glass back enables easy wireless charging.

Two Sizes

New 4.7‑inch and 5.5‑inch Retina HD displays.

All‑New Display

A Retina HD display that’s more beautiful than ever. With True Tone, a wide colour gamut and 3d touch.

True Tone

True Tone technology automatically adjusts the white balance to match the light around you. For a better viewing experience in all kinds of environments.

Brilliant Colours

With a wide colour gamut and the best colour accuracy in the industry, everything on the screen looks more brilliant and vibrant.

Wide Viewing Angles

Dual‑domain pixels give you a great view of the screen from almost any angle.

Camera

All‑New Sensor

iPhone 8 features a more advanced 12‑megapixel camera. With a larger, faster sensor. A new colour filter. Deeper pixels. And optical image stabilisation for photos and videos.

Portrait Mode

Portrait mode on iPhone 8 Plus gets even better. For sharper foregrounds and more naturally blurred backgrounds.

Portrait Lighting

Beta

Dual cameras and new facial landmarking create dramatic studio lighting effects in Portrait mode.

Optical Zoom

The wide‑angle and telephoto lenses on iPhone 8 Plus enable optical zoom, as well as digital zoom of up to 10x for photos and 6x for videos.

Processor

Faster CPU

Introducing A11 Bionic. With four efficiency cores that are up to 70 per cent faster than A10 Fusion. And two performance cores that are up to 25 per cent faster.

Power Efficiency

A second-generation performance controller and custom battery design that lasts up to two hours longer between charges than iPhone 7.

Apple‑Designed GPU

The new Apple‑designed three‑core GPU is up to 30 per cent faster than A10 Fusion.


Augmented Reality

A11 Bionic powers extraordinary augmented reality apps and games that will change the way you see the world.

Charging

With no charging cable required, iPhone 8 is truly designed for the future of wireless.


A Wireless World

Charge with wireless charging stations and mats in hotels, cafés and airports around the world.

AirPower

Available 2018

Introducing the AirPower mat. Just set your iPhone, Apple Watch and AirPods anywhere on the mat to charge them wirelessly.

iOS

iOS is the most advanced, intuitive and secure mobile operating system in the world. It’s designed to help you get the most out of iPhone.

New with iOS 11

Get to apps in Messages with fewer taps. Let Siri be your personal DJ. And discover new music with friends in Apple Music.

Augmented Reality

Experience mind‑blowing AR games and apps on the world’s largest platform for augmented reality.

Jai Hind vande matram 👦

Samsung Galaxy Note 8 specifications

NETWORK
Technology GSM / HSPA / LTE
LAUNCH
Announced 2017, August
Status Coming soon. Exp. release 2017, September
BODY
Dimensions 162.5 x 74.8 x 8.6 mm (6.40 x 2.94 x 0.34 in)
Weight 195 g (6.88 oz)
Build Corning Gorilla Glass 5 back panel
SIM Single SIM (Nano-SIM) or Hybrid Dual SIM (Nano-SIM, dual stand-by)
  – IP68 certified – dust/water proof over 1.5 meter and 30 minutes

– Stylus

– Samsung Pay (Visa, MasterCard certified)

DISPLAY
Type Super AMOLED capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Size 6.3 inches (~83.2% screen-to-body ratio)
Resolution 1440 x 2960 pixels (~521 ppi pixel density)
Multitouch Yes
Protection Corning Gorilla Glass 5
  – HDR10 compliant

– 3D Touch (home button only)

– Always-on display

– Grace UX UI

PLATFORM
OS Android 7.1.1 (Nougat)
Chipset Exynos 8895 Octa – EMEA

Qualcomm MSM8998 Snapdragon 835 – USA & China

CPU Octa-core (4×2.3 GHz & 4×1.7 GHz) – EMEA

Octa-core (4×2.35 GHz Kryo & 4×1.9 GHz Kryo) – USA & China

GPU Mali-G71 MP20 – EMEA

Adreno 540 – USA & China

MEMORY
Card slot microSD, up to 256 GB (dedicated slot) – single-SIM model

microSD, up to 256 GB (uses SIM 2 slot) – dual-SIM model

Internal 64/128/256 GB, 6 GB RAM
CAMERA
Primary Dual 12 MP, f/1.7 & f/2.4, OIS, phase detection autofocus, 2x optical zoom, dual-LED (dual tone) flash
Features 1/2.55″ sensor size, 1.4 µm pixel size @ 26 mm

1/3.6″ sensor size, 1.0 µm pixel size @ 52 mm

Geo-tagging, simultaneous 4K video and 9MP image recording, touch focus, face/smile detection, Auto HDR, panorama

Video 2160p@30fps, 1080p@60fps, 720p@240fps, HDR, dual-video rec.
Secondary 8 MP, f/1.7, autofocus, 1/3.6″ sensor size, 1.22 µm pixel size, 1440p@30fps, dual video call, Auto HDR
SOUND
Alert types Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
Loudspeaker Yes
3.5mm jack Yes
  – 32-bit/384kHz audio

– Active noise cancellation with dedicated mic

COMMS
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac, dual-band, Wi-Fi Direct, hotspot
Bluetooth 5.0, A2DP, EDR, LE
GPS Yes, with A-GPS, GLONASS, BDS, GALILEO
NFC Yes
Radio No
USB 3.1, Type-C 1.0 reversible connector
FEATURES
Sensors Iris scanner, fingerprint (rear-mounted), accelerometer, gyro, proximity, compass, barometer, heart rate, SpO2
Messaging SMS(threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM
Browser HTML5
Java No
  – Samsung Desktop Experience support

– Fast battery charging (Quick Charge 2.0)

– Qi/PMA wireless charging (market dependent)

– ANT+ support

– S-Voice natural language commands and dictation

– MP4/DivX/XviD/WMV/H.265 player

– MP3/WAV/WMA/eAAC+/FLAC player

– Photo/video editor

– Document editor

BATTERY
  Non-removable Li-Ion 3300 mAh battery
Talk time Up to 22 h (3G)
Music play Up to 74 h
MISC
Colors Midnight Black, Maple Gold, Orchid Grey, Deep Sea Blue
Price About 1000 EURU

Android 8.0 Oreo-Android Oreo top features and updates

  • Google has launches latest Android update which it name as word 8.0 which is further update from Android naugat to 7.0. Android Oreo is not much different as compared to the Nobel but a lot of changes  Indira Android Oreo, Google set that it will give you up better experience and smooth performance in there Android Oreo let’s start with the first update of Android Oreo.
  • Open wonder:- This this will give you a 50% faster boot up of your phone then other Android as compared to Android nougat to Marshmallow, your phone will put up faster if you reviewed over switch off your phone
  • Background apps:- Google said that the Android Oreo will monitoring all the background apps which are run in your phone they will collect information from the app for example what is app, what is the feature of app, you will notice that the breakup app which is running in your phone will use your phone resources very badly Google said that Android Oreo will help you to improve your performance and work quickly and better life will be improved.
  • Picture in picture:- Google said that Android Oreo will allow you to see two apps at once, it like a super strength and look like as laser experience. It is not much changed in Android Android nougat you will notice that in Android no but you will run two apps instantly same as Android Oreo but now there will be in large scale in this Android Oreo.
  • Notification dot:- Google said that you have seen on notification tone in your home screen apps for example if you got any type of notification in your Instagram app it will show on right top corner a small dot which you can press long and you see you are notification in the app.
  • Talk about life saver:- Google said that you got a better battery experience whether you are talking, playing, working and streaming you can feel confident about keep your battery strong and full of life. Normally Google will perform very good in there battery life session for example Android nougat is much better battery saver then Marshmallow so that you got better battery life in Android Oreo.
  • Setting change:- Google said that you will go to simple and effective settings and become more simplified to you to use.
  • Play protect:- you have notice in every Android devices that Google can give you a play protector application in their Android safe Google said that in Android Oreo it worked to your device and and save your data from any miss happening app by scanning over 50 billion app per day even the one you have not installed yet.
  • Autofill:- Google said that Android Oreo will help you in autofill for example if you login in any Twitter account you just login again and again you are a login retail Android Oreo help you to remember your login detail and and autofill your detail and save your login time.            

    Google gave you a lot of changes in the Android Oreo examples you got a new Emojis is change your icon shape or size and it will give a lot of changes so important but I have discussion in your above.

    Updates:-


    Google said that you will get update in Google pixel, or Nexus device or you can see this update in a flagship device is like Samsung Galaxy 8 or Galaxy s8 +you will say that this update in also in oneplus 5 LG phones but if we talk about the mid range phone it might not be possible in one month it will take much more time because me trade phone will not completely take update of Android nougat so it is not possible for mid range phone that it will take update in 2 months.

    This all test will be performed in Google pixel device and Google sure that your device will become more smarter than before.

    Jai Hind Vande Mataram